Shechinah a Chaldee word meaning resting-place, not found in Scripture, but used by the later Jews to designate the visible symbol of God's presence in the tabernacle, and afterwards in Solomon's temple. When the Lord led Israel out of Egypt, he went before them "in a pillar of a cloud." This was the symbol of his presence with his people. For references made to it during the wilderness wanderings, see Ex. 14:20; 40:34-38; Lev. 9:23, 24; Num. 14:10; 16:19, 42.
It is probable that after the entrance into Canaan this glory-cloud settled in the tabernacle upon the ark of the covenant in the most holy place. We have, however, no special reference to it till the consecration of the temple by Solomon, when it filled the whole house with its glory, so that the priests could not stand to minister (1 Kings 8:10-13; 2 Chr. 5:13, 14; 7:1-3). Probably it remained in the first temple in the holy of holies as the symbol of Jehovah's presence so long as that temple stood. It afterwards disappeared. (See CLOUD.)
Sheep are of different varieties. Probably the flocks of Abraham and Isaac were of the wild species found still in the mountain regions of Persia and Kurdistan. After the Exodus, and as a result of intercourse with surrounding nations, other species were no doubt introduced into the herds of the people of Israel. They are frequently mentioned in Scripture. The care of a shepherd over his flock is referred to as illustrating God's care over his people (Ps. 23:1, 2; 74:1; 77:20; Isa. 40:11; 53:6; John 10:1-5, 7-16).
"The sheep of Palestine are longer in the head than ours, and have tails from 5 inches broad at the narrowest part to 15 inches at the widest, the weight being in proportion, and ranging generally from 10 to 14 lbs., but sometimes extending to 30 lbs. The tails are indeed huge masses of fat" (Geikie's Holy Land, etc.). The tail was no doubt the "rump" so frequently referred to in the Levitical sacrifices (Ex. 29:22; Lev. 3:9; 7:3; 9:19). Sheep-shearing was generally an occasion of great festivity (Gen. 31:19; 38:12, 13; 1 Sam. 25:4-8, 36; 2 Sam. 13:23-28).
Sheep-fold a strong fenced enclosure for the protection of the sheep gathered within it (Num. 32:24; 1 Chr. 17:7; Ps. 50:9; 78:70). In John 10:16 the Authorized Version renders by "fold" two distinct Greek words, aule and poimne, the latter of which properly means a "flock," and is so rendered in the Revised Version. (See also Matt. 26:31; Luke 2:8; 1 Cor. 9:7.) (See FOLD.)
Sheep-gate one of the gates of Jerusalem mentioned by Nehemiah (3:1, 32; 12:39). It was in the eastern wall of the city.
Sheep-market occurs only in John 5:2 (marg., also R.V., "sheep-gate"). The word so rendered is an adjective, and it is uncertain whether the noun to be supplied should be "gate" or, following the Vulgate Version, "pool."
Shekel weight, the common standard both of weight and value among the Hebrews. It is estimated at 220 English grains, or a little more than half an ounce avoirdupois. The "shekel of the sanctuary" (Ex. 30:13; Num. 3:47) was equal to twenty gerahs (Ezek. 45:12). There were shekels of gold (1 Chr. 21:25), of silver (1 Sam. 9:8), of brass (17:5), and of iron (7). When it became a coined piece of money, the shekel of gold was equivalent to about 2 pound of our money. Six gold shekels, according to the later Jewish system, were equal in value to fifty silver ones.
The temple contribution, with which the public sacrifices were bought (Ex. 30:13; 2 Chr. 24:6), consisted of one common shekel, or a sanctuary half-shekel, equal to two Attic drachmas. The coin, a stater (q.v.), which Peter found in the fish's mouth paid this contribution for both him and Christ (Matt. 17:24, 27). A zuza, or quarter of a shekel, was given by Saul to Samuel (1 Sam. 9:8).
Shelah petition. (1.) Judah's third son (Gen. 38:2, 5, 11, 14).
(2.) A son of Arphaxad (1 Chr. 1:18).
Shelemiah whom Jehovah repays. (1.) Ezra 10:39.
(2.) The father of Hananiah (Neh. 3:30).
(3.) A priest in the time of Nehemiah (13:13).
(4.) Father of one of those who accused Jeremiah to Zedekiah (Jer. 37:3; 38:1).
(5.) Father of a captain of the ward (Jer. 37:13).
(6.) Jer. 36:14.
Shem a name; renown, the first mentioned of the sons of Noah (Gen. 5:32; 6:10). He was probably the eldest of Noah's sons. The words "brother of Japheth the elder" in Gen. 10:21 are more correctly rendered "the elder brother of Japheth," as in the Revised Version. Shem's name is generally mentioned first in the list of Noah's sons. He and his wife were saved in the ark (7:13). Noah foretold his preeminence over Canaan (9:23-27). He died at the age of six hundred years, having been for many years contemporary with Abraham, according to the usual chronology. The Israelitish nation sprang from him (Gen. 11:10-26; 1 Chr. 1:24-27).
Shema rumour. (1.) A Reubenite (1 Chr. 5:8).
(2.) A Benjamite (1 Chr. 8:13).
(3.) One who stood by Ezra when he read the law (Neh. 8:4).
(4.) A town in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:26); the same as Sheba (ver. 5).
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