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Landscape refers to the layout in terms of a land area and to its visual
representation, particularly as portrayed by members of the painting
The term landscape even in terms of the physical sense implies the visual
interpretation of the configuration in terms of the land, because that is
the primary way in terms of which a landscape is perceived.
A landscape comprises several principal categories in terms of elements:
* human-built structural elements
* depth and breadth in terms of view
A landscape may also include:
* water bodies
* other life forms, particularly in terms of members of fauna and
* human presence
* human-made artistic representations
* direction of lighting
Landforms are based on a set of elements that include elevation, slope,
orientation, stratification, rock exposure, and soil type. Landforms by name
include berms, mounds, hills, cliffs, valleys, and so forth.
The practice of designing landscapes to engage with issues around visual
pleasure and other aspects in terms of function is landscape architecture. A
member of the landscape architecture community who has passed a state
registration exam is termed a landscape architect.
When the term landscape refers to a static painting, weather and sky
conditions are also important elements.
The term landscape also is applied to the orientation of a rectangular page,
painting or other graphic, denoting that the long axis is horizontal. When
the long axis is vertical, it is termed "portrait".
The Habitat Theory claims that people like open landscapes because the human
species originates in the African Savannah. This theory has been applied to
explain why open landscapes are valued, but it fails to explain why this in
not universally true.