Technology is the field that applies science to solve problems with an industrial, commercial, educational, persuasive or military end in mind. Engineering applies human traits such as imagination, judgement, and intellectual discipline to existing human knowledge to create or use technology safely and efficiently. The term technology is usually used to explain new inventions and gadgets using recently derived scientific principles and processes. However, even very old inventions such as the wheel are examples of technology. Technology in ideology Very often, new is assumed to mean "better" in technology and engineering circles. The notion of appropriate technology developed in the 20th century to describe situations where it was not desirable to use very new technologies or those that required access to some centralized infrastructure or parts or skills imported from elsewhere. The eco-village movement evolved in part due to this concern. Intermediate technology, more of an economics concern, refers to compromises between central and expensive technologies of developed nations and those which developing nations find most effective to deploy given an excess of labour, and scarcity of cash. In general, an "appropriate" technology will also be "intermediate". Exactly contrary assumptions are made by those who promote transhumanism, posthumanism, technological singularity. In these ideologies, technological development is regarded as morally good. In economics, definitions or assumptions of progress or growth are often related to one of more of the above assumptions. Challenging prevailing assumptions about technology and its usefulness has led to ideas like uneconomic growth or measuring well-being. These, and economics itself, can often be described as technologies, specifically, as persuasion technology - a concern covered in its own separate article. In warfare, technological escalation is often a feature of an arms race, and results in new military technology. In fiction, fictional technology often plays a role in the story, especially science fiction, which is often based on such ideas.
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