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Symphony No. 3
Ludwig van Beethoven's Symphony No. 3, known as the Eroica, was completed in 1803.
It was to be dedicated to Napoleon Bonaparte, until he appointed himself
emperor. Beethoven reportedly tore up the dedication in a rage upon hearing
the news, and gave it the existing title, Sinfonia eroica (Heroic Symphony).
Its proportions are noticeably different to those of earlier symphonies, and
is about twice as long as any that came before.
Music critic W.N. Sullivan writes that the first movement is an expression
of Beethoven's courage in confronting his deafness, the second, slow and
dirgelike, depicting the overwhelming despair he felt, the third, the
scherzo, an 'indomitable uprising of creative energy' and the fourth an
exuberant outpouring of creative energy.