April 7April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). There are 268 days remaining. Events * 1348 - Charles University is founded in Prague. * 1795 - France adopts the metre as the unit of length * 1831 - Emperor Pedro I of Brazil abdicates in favor of his son, Pedro II * 1856 - Foundation of Nelson College, Nelson, New Zealand * 1862 - American Civil War: Battle of Shiloh - Union Army under General Ulysses S. Grant defeat the Confederates near Shiloh, Tennessee. * 1906 - Mount Vesuvius erupts and devastates Naples. * 1922 - Teapot Dome scandal: United States Secretary of the Interior leases Teapot Dome oil reserves in Wyoming. * 1927 - First long distance public television broadcast (Washington, DC to New York City; image was of of Commerce Secretary Herbert Hoover). * 1939 - World War II: Italy invades Albania. * 1940 - Booker T. Washington becomes the first African American to be depicted on a United States postage stamp. * 1945 - World War II: The Japanese battleship Yamato is sunk 200 miles north of Okinawa while in-route to a suicide mission. * 1948 - The World Health Organization is established by the United Nations. * 1953 - Dag Hammarskjšld is elected United Nations Secretary General. * 1954 - President Dwight D. Eisenhower gives his"domino theory" speech during a news conference. * 1956 - Spain relinquishes its protectorate in Morocco. * 1963 - Yugoslavia is proclaimed to be a Socialist republic and Josip Broz Tito is named President for life. * 1964 - IBM announces the System/360 * 1967 - Six-Day War: Israeli fighters shoot down seven Syrian MIG-21s. * 1980 - The United States severs diplomatic relations with Iran and imposes economic sanctions following the taking of American hostages on November 4, 1979. * 1983 - During STS-6, astronauts Story Musgrave and Don Peterson perform the first space shuttle spacewalk (duration: 4 hours, 10 minutes). * 1989 - Soviet submarine Komsomolets sinks in the Barents Sea off the coast of Norway after a fire. 42 sailors died. * 1990 - Iran Contra Affair: John Poindexter is found guilty of five charges for his part in the scandal but the convictions were later reversed after an appeal. * 1994 - Massacres of Tutsis begin in Kigali, Rwanda. * 1998 - Citicorp and Travelers Group announce plans to merge creating the largest financial-services conglomerate in the world, Citigroup. * 1999 - Kosovo War: Kosovo's main border crossings are closed by Serbian forces to prevent ethnic Albanians from leaving. * 2000 - Mars Odyssey is launched. Births * 1506 - Saint Francis Xavier, founder of the Society of Jesus (+ 1552) * 1770 - William Wordsworth, English poet (+ 1850) * 1772 - Charles Fourier, French philosopher (+ 1837) * 1873 - John McGraw, baseball coach, manager, player * 1893 - Allen Dulles, director of the Central Intelligence Agency (+ 1969) * 1897 - Walter Winchell, broadcaster, journalist (+ 1972) * 1904 - Ralph Bunche, diplomat, winner of the Nobel Peace Prize * 1908 - Percy Faith, composer, musician (+ 1976) * 1915 - Billie Holiday, American jazz and Blues singer (+ 1959) * 1915 - Henry Kuttner, science fiction writer (+ 1958) * 1920 - Ravi Shankar, musician * 1922 - Mongo Santamaria, Latin jazz musician (+ 2003) * 1924 - Johannes Mario Simmel, Austrian writer * 1928 - James Garner, actor * 1928 - Alan J. Pakula, producer, director (+ 1998) * 1939 - Francis Ford Coppola, American film director * 1939 - Sir David Frost, broadcaster, television host * 1944 - Gerhard Schršder, German Bundeskanzler (chancellor) since 1998 * 1949 - John Oates, musician ("Hall and Oates") * 1951 - Janis Ian, singer and songwriter * 1954 - Jackie Chan, actor * 1954 - Tony Dorsett, American football star * 1964 - Russell Crowe, actor Deaths * 1614 - El Greco, artist * 1789 - Abd-ul-Hamid I, Ottoman sultan * 1858 - Anton Diabelli, music publisher, editor and composer * 1891 - P. T. Barnum, circus impresario * 1947 - Henry Ford, automobile manufacturer and industrialist * 1950 - Walter Huston, Academy Award winning actor * 1955 - Theda Bara, silent film actress * 1968 - Jim Clark, racing driver * 1981 - Norman Taurog, director * 1997 - Georgi Shonin, cosmonaut * 1998 - Marjory Stoneman Douglas, preeminent conservationist and eviromentalist, dies at age 108. Holidays and observances * Araw ng Kagitingan was moved this year from April 9 to April 7 to give the residents a long weekend and help tourism in the Philippines.