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A solid is a state of matter that is characterized by a definite volume and
a definite shape (i.e. it resists deformation). In the solid phase of
matter, the atoms have a fixed spatial ordering, but this does not prevent
the solid from being deformed or compressed to some extent. Because all
matter has some kinetic energy, the atoms in even the most rigid solid move
slightly, but this movement is invisible.
Physicists call the study of solids solid state physics. This includes
semiconductors and superconductivity. Solid state physics is a type of
condensed matter physics.
Materials science is primarily concerned with properties of solids such as
strength and phase transformations. It overlaps strongly with solid state physics.
Solid state chemistry overlaps both of these fields, but is especially
concerned with the synthesis of novel materials.