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A country, a land, or a state, is a geographical area and an independent
political entity with its own government, administration, laws, often a
constitution, police, military, tax rules, and people. Some countries are
nation states - for example France or Israel. In these nation states one
particular nation is dominant. Other countries, such as People's Republic of
China, Spain or United Kingdom contain several nations (or, at least, some
parts of the population call themselves a nation), in spite of some of them
considering themselves as nation states.
Sometimes, parts of states with a distinct history or culture are called
"lands" or "countries": England, Scotland and Wales - three nations on the
island of Great Britain are sometimes called countries, even though they are
administrative components of the State of the United Kingdom.
The terms country, nation, state and land are often used as synonyms, but in
a more strict usage they are distinguished:
* country is the geographical area
* nation designates a people
* state is about government, and an entity in international law
* land may be used for "a country and its people" but also thought of as
country belonging to a nation or a monarch
Countries with exclaves
These countries consist of two non-contiguous parts, separated by land of
one or more other countries). The smaller part (the exclave) is put in
* Angola (Cabinda)
* Azerbaijan (Nakhichevan)
* Brunei (Temburong)
* Timor Leste (Ocussi-Ambeno region)
* Oman (Musandam peninsula)
* Russia (Kaliningrad)
* US (Alaska)