New YorkNew York is a state in the northeastern United States and State nickname: Empire State its U.S. postal abbreviation is NY. Capital Albany Largest City New York City Area Ranked 27th - Total 141,205 km2 - Land 122,409 km2 - Water 18,795 km2 - % water 13.3% Population Ranked 3rd - Total (2000) 18,976,457 - Density 134/km2 Admittance into History Union 11th - Order - Date July 26, 1788 Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4 The Dutch were the first settlers in New York, 40°29'40"N to establishing Fort Orange near Latitude 45°0'42"N Albany in 1624 and New Longitude 71°47'25"W to Amsterdam on the island of 79°45'54"W Manhattan a year later. After Width 455 km the English took over in the Length 530 km 1660s, the colony was renamed Elevation New York, after the Duke of -Highest 1,629 meters York. -Mean 305 meters -Lowest 0 meters In 1683, the government was reorganized into a pattern ISO 3166-2: US-NY still followed, and the state was divided into twelve counties, each of which was subdivided into towns. Ten of those counties still exist (see below), but two (Cornwall and Dukes) were in territory purchased by the Duke of York from the Earl of Sterling, and are no longer within the territory of the State of New York, having been transferred by treaty to Massachusetts, Dukes in 1686 and Cornwall in 1692. (Cornwall County became a large portion of the State of Maine when that state was detached from Massachusetts in 1819; Dukes County is still a county in Massachusetts.) While the number of counties has been increased to 62, the pattern still remains that a town in New York State is a subdivision of a county, rather than an incorporated municipality as in most (but not all) other States. New York was one of the thirteen colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution. Law and Government As in all fifty states, the head of the executive branch of government is a Governor. The legislative branch is called the Legislature, and consists of a Senate and an Assembly. For many years, the two houses of the state legislature have been controlled by different political parties, making legislation and particularly budgeting difficult. Unlike most States, the New York electoral law permits electoral fusion, and New York ballots tend to have, in consequence, a larger number of parties on them, some being permanent minor parties that seek to influence the major parties and others being ephemeral parties formed to give major-party candidates an additional line on the ballot. Geography It borders Lake Erie, Lake Ontario, Canada (Quebec and Ontario), Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and the Atlantic Ocean. The state includes everything from skyscrapers in Manhattan to rivers, mountains, and lakes in upstate New York. Niagara Falls is one of the chief attractions. Three major islands form an important part of the state: Long Island, Manhattan Island, and Staten Island. The Hudson River flows through the eastern portion of the state. Economy New York is the leading center of banking, finance and communication in the United States. Its 1999 total gross state product was $755 billion, second only to California in the nation. Its 2000 Per Capita Personal Income was $34,547, placing it 4th in the nation. New York's agricultural outputs are dairy products, cattle and other livestock, vegetables, nursery stock, and apples. Its industrial outputs are printing and publishing, scientific instruments, electric equipment, machinery, chemical products, and tourism. Agriculture New York State is an agricultural leader, ranking within the top five states for a number of products including dairy, apples, cherries, cabbage, potatoes, onions, maple syrup and many other products. The state has about a quarter of its land in farms and produced 3.4 billion dollars in agricultural products in 2001. The south shore of Lake Ontario provides the right mix of soils and microclimate for many apple, cherry, plum, pear and peach orchards. Apples are also grown in the Hudson Valley and near Lake Champlain. The south shore of Lake Erie and the southern Finger Lakes hillsides have many vinyards. The Finger Lakes area is famous for award-winning farm wineries. New York was heavily glaciated in the Ice Age leaving much of the state with deep, fertile, though somewhat rocky soils. Row crops, including hay, corn (also known as maize), wheat, oats, barley, and soybeans. Particularly in the western part of the state, sweet corn, peas, carrots, squash, cucumbers and other vegetables are grown. The Hudson and Mohawk valleys are known for pumpkins and blueberries. The glaciers also left numerous swampy areas, which have been drained for the rich humus soils called muckland which is mostly used for onions, potatoes, celery and other vegetables. Dairy farms are present throughout much of the state. Cheese is a major product, often produced by Amish or Mennonite farm cheeseries. New York is rich in nectar producing plants and is a major honey producing state. The honeybees are also used for pollination of fruits and vegetables. Most commercial beekeepers are migratory, taking their hives to southern states for the winter. Most cities have Farmers' markets which are well supplied by local truck farmers. Demographics As of 2000, New York is the third largest state in population after California and Texas, with a population of 18,976,457. Important Cities and Towns Albany is the state capital, and New York City is by far the largest city. Its major cities and towns are: * New York City * New Rochelle * Buffalo * Mount Vernon * Rochester * Schenectady * Yonkers * Utica * Syracuse * Binghamton * Albany Education Colleges and Universities * Adelphi University * New School University * Albany College of Pharmacy * New York College of Podiatric * Alfred University Medicine * Audrey Cohen College * New York Institute of Technology * Bank Street College of * New York Medical College Education * New York University * Bard College * Niagara University * Barnard College * Pace University * Boricua College * Parsons School of Design * Canisius College * Paul Smith's College * Cazenovia College * Polytechnic University of New * City University of New York York System * Pratt Institute o Baruch College * Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute o Brooklyn College * Roberts Wesleyan College o City College * Rochester Institute of o College of Staten Island Technology o Graduate School and * The Rockefeller University University Center of the * The Sage Colleges City University of New * Sarah Lawrence College York * St. Bonaventure University o Hunter College * Saint Francis College o John Jay College * St. John Fisher College o Lehman College * St. John's University o Medgar Evers College * St. Joseph's College o Queens College * St. Lawrence University o York College * St. Thomas Aquinas College * Clarkson University * Sarah Lawrence College * Colgate University * School of Visual Arts * College of Aeronautics * Siena College * College of Mount St. Vincent * Skidmore College * College of New Rochelle * State University of New York * College of Saint Rose System * Columbia University o Alfred State College * Concordia College, Bronxville o State University of New * The Cooper Union for the York Albany Advancement of Science and Art o State University of New * Cornell University York Binghamton * Daemen College o State University of New * Dominican College York Buffalo * Dowling College o State University of New * DęYouville College York Stony Brook * Elmira College o State University of New * Excelsior College York Brockport * Five Towns College o State University of New * Fordham University York Buffalo (Buffalo State * Hamilton College College) * Hartwick College o State University of New * Hilbert College York Cortland * Hobart and William Smith o State University of New Colleges York Fredonia * Hofstra University o State University of New * Houghton College York Geneseo * Iona College o State University of New * Ithaca College York New Paltz * The Jewish Theological Seminary o State University of New of America York Old Westbury * The Juilliard School o State University of New * Keuka College York Oneonta * Le Moyne College o State University of New * Laboratory Institute of York Oswego Merchandising o State University of New * Long Island University York Plattsburgh o Arnold and Marie Schwartz o State University of New College of Pharmacy and York Potsdam Health Sciences o State University of New o Long Island University York Purchase Brentwood Campus o State University of New o Long Island University York Cobleskill Brooklyn Campus o State University of New o Long Island University York Morrisville C.W. Post Campus o State University of New o Long Island University York College of Rockland Graduate Campus Environmental Science and o Southampton College Forestry o Long Island University o State University of New Westchester Campus York Farmingdale * Manhattan College o State University of New * Manhattan School of Music York Empire State College * Manhattanville College o Fashion Institute of * Marist College Technology * Marymount College o State University of New * Marymount Manhattan College York Health Science Center * Medaille College at Brooklyn * Mercy College o State University of New * Molloy College York Health Science Center * Monroe College at Syracuse * Mount Saint Mary College o State University of New * Nazareth College York Institute of Technology o Maritime College State University of New York * Syracuse University * Teachers College, Columbia University * Touro College o Touro University International * Unification Theological Seminary * Union College * Union Theological Seminary * United States Merchant Marine Academy * United States Military Academy (West Point) * University of Rochester * Utica College of Syracuse University * Vassar College * Wagner College * Webb Institute * Wells College * Yeshiva University Professional Sports Teams * National Football League * Minor League Baseball o Buffalo Bills teams o The following teams play in East o Brooklyn Cyclones Rutherford, New Jersey, but are o Staten Island Yankees usually considered New York o Binghamton Mets teams o Buffalo Bisons + New York Jets o Jamestown Jammers + New York Giants o Batavia Muckdogs * New York Knicks, National Basketball o Rochester Red Wings Association o Auburn Doubledays * New York Liberty, Women's National o Syracuse SkyChiefs Basketball Association o Oneonta Tigers * New York Power, Women's United Soccer o Tri-Valley ValleyCats Association o Hudson Valley * National Hockey League Renegades o Buffalo Sabres * Major League Soccer o New York Rangers o MetroStars (Based in o New York Islanders East Rutherford, New * Major League Baseball Jersey) o New York Mets o New York Yankees * Major League Lacrosse o Long Island Lizards o Rochester Rattlers Miscellanea USS New York was named in honor of this state.