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Surgery is the medical specialty that treats diseases or [Surgery pd.jpg]
injuries by operative manual and instrumental treatment.
Its practitioners are referred to as surgeons.
History of surgery
Although surgeons are now considered to be specialised physicians, the
profession of surgeon and that of physician have different historical roots.
For example, the Hippocratic Oath warns physicians against practicing
surgery (in particular surgery to relieve kidney stones), which was to be
left to specialized craftsmen.
Among the first surgeons were battlefield doctors in the Napoleonic Wars who
were primarily concerned with amputation. Naval surgeons were often
barber-surgeons, who combined surgery with their main jobs as barbers.
Common surgical procedures
Of the eight most common surgical procedures in the US, four are obstetric:
episiotomy, repair of obstetric laceration, cesarean section, and artificial
rupture of the amniotic membrane.
According to 1996 data from the US National Center for Health Statistics,
40.3 million inpatient surgical procedures were performed in the United
States in 1996, followed closely by 31.5 million outpatient surgeries.
* Christiaan Barnard
* Norman Bethune (1890-1939), battlefield surgery.
* William deVries
* David Hayes Agnew
* William Jardine
* Walter Karl Koch
* George H Tichenor
A surgery can be a place where surgery is performed, or simply the office of
a physician, dentist, or veterinarian.
In British English, a surgery is a regular time scheduled by a Member of
Parliament to meet with her constituents and discuss their concerns.