Bottom Content goes here.
Wikipedia content requires these links.....
Wikipedia content is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.
Meningitis is the infection of the sheaths and membranes (meninges) covering
the brain and the spinal cord. Although the most common causes are bacteria,
certain viral, chemical agents and even tumor cells may cause meningitis.
Encephalitis and brain abscess can accompany meningitis as a complication
(due to spreading of bacteria to neighbouring brain structures).
Major bacteria that cause meningitis are streptococcus, Haemophilus
influenzae, staphylococcus and meningococcus.
The symptoms and diagnostic methods are similar to those of encephalitis.
Additionally, the culture of the cerebrospinal fluid and blood is crucial to
determine the causative agent.
Since meningitis is a severe medical emergency with high levels of fatality
and the cause is usually a bacteria strain that is highly treatable by
antibiotics, patients with suspected meningitis should immediately undergo a
lumbar puncture procedure after a CT scan (which will eliminate a possible
brain swelling that may cause a brain herniation during lumbar puncture) and
broad spectrum antibiotics should be urgently started before the culture
studies are completed. If lumbar puncture can not be performed because of
brain swelling or a possible concomitant brain abscess, a broad spectrum
antibiotic is started anyway and later it can be replaced with a more
specific antibiotic depending on the results of blood culture studies.
Meningitis is usually caused by the infectious disorders of the neighbouring
structures (sinuses, mastoid cells of ear etc.). Diagnostic tests should be
run to find and treat these possible sources of infection, as well.
Convulsions are frequently encountered during the course of meningitis and
are treated with appropriate anti-seizure drugs like phenytoin.