Gamma rayGamma rays (often denoted by the Greek letter gamma, γ) are an energetic form of electromagnetic radiation produced by radioactivity or other nuclear or subatomic processes such as electron-position annihilation. Gamma rays are more penetrating than either alpha or beta radiation, but less ionizing. They are a form of electromagnetic radiation. Gamma rays are distinguished from X rays by their origin. Gamma rays are produced by nuclear transitions while X-rays are produced by energy transitions due to accelerating electrons. Because it is possible for some electron transitions to be of higher energy than nuclear transition, there is an overlap between low energy gamma rays and high energy X-rays. Nuclear processes Radioactive decay processes * Alpha decay * Beta decay * Gamma radiation * Neutron emission * Proton emission * Spontaneous fission ---------------------------- Nucleosynthesis * Neutron Capture o The R-process o The S-process * Proton capture: o The P-process Shielding for γ rays requires large amounts of mass. Shields that reduce gamma ray intensity by 50% include 1cm (0.4 inches) of lead, 6cm (2.4 inches) of concrete or 9cm (3.6 inches) of packed dirt. Gamma rays from nuclear fallout would probably cause the largest number of casualties in the event of the use of nuclear weapons in a nuclear war. An effective fallout shelter reduces human exposure at least 1000 times. Gamma rays are less ionising than either alpha or beta rays. However, reducing human danger requires thicker shielding. They produce damage similar to that caused by X-rays such as burns, cancer, and genetic mutations. In terms of ionization, gamma radiation interacts with matter via three main processes: the photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, and pair production. Photoelectric Effect: This describes the case in which a gamma photon interacts with and transfers all of its energy to an orbital electron, ejecting that electron from the atom. The kinetic energy of the resulting photoelectron is equal to the energy of the incident gamma photon minus the binding energy of the electron. The photoelectric effect is thought to be the dominant energy transfer mechanism for x-ray and gamma ray photons with energies below 50 keV (thousand electron volts), but it is much less important at higher energies. Compton Scattering: This is an interaction in which an incident gamma photon loses enough energy to an orbital electron to cause its ejection, with the remainder of the original photon's energy being emitted as a new, lower energy gamma photon with an emission direction different from that of the incident gamma photon. The probability of Compton scatter decreases with increasing photon energy. Compton scattering is thought to be the principal absorption mechanism for gamma rays in the intermediate energy range 100 keV to 10 MeV (million electron volts), an energy spectrum which includes most gamma radiation present in a nuclear explosion. Compton scattering is relatively independent of the atomic number of the absorbing material. Pair Production: By interaction in the vicinity of the coulomb force of the nucleus, the energy of the incident photon is spontaneously converted into the mass of an electron-positron pair. A positron is a positively charged electron. Energy in excess of the equivalent rest mass of the two particles (1.02 MeV) appears as the kinetic energy of the pair and the recoil nucleus. The electron of the pair, frequently referred to as the secondary electron, is densely ionizing. The positron has a very short lifetime. It combines with 10-8 seconds with a free electron. The entire mass of these two particles is then converted to two gamma photons of 0.51 MeV energy each. Gamma rays are often produced alongside other forms of radiation such as alpha or beta. When a nucleus emits an α or β particle, the daughter nucleus is sometimes left in an excited state. It can then jump down to a lower level by emitting a gamma ray in much the same way that an atomic electron can jump to a lower level by emitting ultraviolet radiation. Gamma rays, x-rays, visible light, and UV rays are all forms of electromagnetic radiation. The only difference is the frequency and hence the energy of the photons. Gamma rays are the most energetic. An example of gamma ray production follows; First cobalt-60 decays to excited nickel-60 by beta decay 60Co --> 60Ni* + e- + ν?e Then the Nickel-60 drops down to the ground state (see nuclear shell model) by emitting a gamma ray. 60Ni* --> 60Ni + γ Uses: The powerful nature of gamma-rays have made them useful in the sterilising of medical equipment by killing bacteria. They are also used to kill bacteria in foodstuffs to keep them fresher for longer. In spite of their cancer-causing properties, gamma rays are also used to treat some cancerous growths. Multiple concentrated beams of gamma rays are directed on the growth in order to kill the cancerous cells. The beams are aimed from different angles to focus the radiation on the growth while minimising damage to the surrounding tissues.